With rank comes privileges. Marcel Mauss theorized the impetus for a return as "the spirit of the gift," an idea that has provoked a long debate in economic anthropology on what motivated the reciprocal exchange. "[2]:186–8 Paul Sillitoe has extended the analysis of reciprocity in these conditions, arguing that the type of reciprocity found will depend upon which sphere of production is being examined. Marshall Sahlins, an American cultural anthropologist, identified three main types of reciprocity (generalized, balanced and negative) in the book Stone Age Economics (1972). Change ), ANTH 355: Theories of Society and Culture. However, in traditional societies "social inequality is more the organization of economic equality. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. While early economic anthropology often seemed focused on detailed investigations of seemingly exotic economic practices, anthropologists such as Bronislaw Malinowski and Marcel Mauss used ethnographic research and findings to critique Western, capitalist economic systems. It is filled with articles from 500+ journals and chapters from … It is thus distinct from the true gift, where no return is expected. ( Log Out /  Mauss does not immediately appear as a theoretician of reciprocity, even in The Gift, where the surprising absence of that concept probably explains why he finds it so difficult to account for the obligation to give.Social constraint as defined by Durkheim does not solve the problem. Marshall Sahlins (1972) built on Mauss’s work and identified three types of reciprocity: Generalized reciprocity: a form of reciprocity in which gifts are given freely without the expectation of return. A generalized system does not involve a direct or balanced dyadic exchange and hence presupposes an expansion of trust. These interests will vary according to the social distance of the parties. [1], The history of the "norm of reciprocity" in European economic thought, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reciprocity_(cultural_anthropology)&oldid=975568609, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 August 2020, at 07:15. In these circumstances, reciprocal exchange can be divided in two types: dyadic back-and-forth exchange (reciprocity), and pooling (redistribution). In a process akin to the division of labour which makes exchange necessary, one's daughter or sister is offered to someone outside a family circle, and starts a circle of exchange of women: in return, the giver is entitled to a woman from the other's intimate kinship group. ( Log Out /  New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc. ( Log Out /  [2]:188 While the most basic form of pooling is that of food within the family, it is also the basis for sustained community efforts under a political leader. Sahlins' model thus views reciprocity as socially, morally and economically structured and "the structure is that of kinship-tribal groups" not a universalizing moral ethic.[2]:196–201. Marcel Mauss [marsel mós] (10. května 1872, Épinal – 10. února 1950, Paříž) byl francouzský sociolog a antropolog, synovec a žák Émila Durkheima.Proslavil se svými příspěvky do časopisu L´Année Sociologique a rozvinutím myšlenek svého strýce Émila Durkheima, který patří mezi zakladatele moderní sociologie. For Mauss, gift exchange is associated with societies that are based on kinship relations that define the transactors and their relations to each other. [2] Reciprocity was also the general principal used by Claude Lévi-Strauss to explain the Elementary Structures of Kinship (1949), in one of the most influential works on kinship theory in the post-war period. I’d imagine holds true for most groups unless you have someone like Monica Geller who absolutely loves hosting. From my understanding, Mauss is saying that this type of exchange is all about social relations; gifting is the way people establish, maintain, or disrupt relationships. That is, exchange in non-market societies is less about acquiring the means of production (whether land or tools) and more about the redistribution of finished goods throughout a community. David Graeber argues, in contrast, that balanced gift exchange and market exchange have more in common than normally assumed. outside the community). These social relationships are largely kinship based. "[2]:205 Rank is usually generational, with elders having seniority, but still held by the bounds of close kinship. Both John Locke and Adam Smithused the idea of reciprocity to justify a free market without state intervention. Reciprocal exchanges can also have a political effect through the creation of multiple obligations and the establishment of leadership, as in the gift exchanges (Moka) between Big Men in Melanesia. “Total prestation not only carries with it the obligation to repay gifts received, but it implies two others equally important: the obligation to give presents and the obligation to receive them.” (Mauss 1967 [1923]: 10-11). 1967 [1923]. Thought of in this way, we can see the relationship as a matter of degree, more or less open or closed. On the other hand, if someone brought a really nice bottle of wine or an elaborate dish, I’m sure we would feel the need to either bring equally nice wine or cook up an elaborate dish. Generalized reciprocity by such elders may be a "starting mechanism" for more general hierarchy, by placing many in the giver's debt. Western economic theorists starting with the eighteenth century Scots economists Sir James Stuart an… MAUSS, MARCEL (1872 – 1950), the father of French ethnography, has had a profound influence on human and social sciences and has left behind an incredibly rich intellectual legacy.