Some of these micro-multinationals, particularly software development companies, have been hiring employees in multiple countries from the beginning of the Internet era. Portfolio investment gives companies and individuals a claim on profit of companies in foreign countries in which they have purchased shares. 2. In most of the cases host countries are the underde­veloped or developing economies. (ii) The partners must choose a strategy before they start to do business not afterward. The following are types of multinational corporations. Contact our experts today to ensure compliance with all relevant accounting standards and tax legislation for your international venture. Some companies such as Coca Cola and Proctor & Gamble take advantage of the fact that potential entrants are wary of the high costs involved in advertising and marketing a new product. Because of their size, multinationals can have a sig­nificant impact on government policy, primarily through the threat of market withdrawal. MNCs can extend trade credit to their other subsidiaries through open account terms, say from 90 to 180 days. Socio economic and political culture of India is quite harmo­nious and stable. The reason for this is that some kinds of knowledge cannot be sold and which are the result of years of experience. The liberalized approach towards foreign direct investment was initiated in India in the first half of the 1990s as part of the structural adjustment programme. It is the popular method of direct investment generally used to start up or overtake total ownership and control of another company making the second company as a wholly owned subsidiary (developed in host country) of the parent company (headquartered in the home country). The Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, called for short, 3M, has more than a thousand product lines. TCS Our full view of financial systems and the people behind them allow us create and evolve the best solution that will help you and your business thrive. Costs associated with es­tablishing plant, training workers, etc., can be very high; once established in a jurisdiction, therefore, many MNCs are quite vulnerable to predatory practices such as, e.g., expropriation, sudden contract renegotiation, the arbitrary withdrawal or compulsory purchase of unnecessary ‘li­censes,’ etc. The additional costs caused by the entrance in foreign markets are of less interest for the local enterprise. These issues become of increasing importance because of the emergence of MNCs in developing countries. Nowadays many corpora­tions have offices, branches or manufacturing plants in different countries than where their original and main headquarter is located. According to Hymer, Kindle Berger and Caves, the existence of MNEs is rea­soned by structural market imperfections for final prod­ucts. In the absence of these factors, market is fully efficient. The following are the characteristics of multinational corporations: Types of multinational corporations Three different models of multinational companies can be achieved, among them are: The centralized model : is when corporations establish an executive headquarters in their home country and then build multiple manufacturing plants and production facilities in other countries. Therefore, multinationals have money power, muscle power, managerial power, technology power and political power through which they influence many economies in the world. There is no unified multinational per­spective on any of these issues. A multinational business has assets in more than one country, generating at least 25% of its revenue from operations outside the home country. The strategic motive for making investments has been advocated as another reason for the growth of MNCs. In addition, they can transfer funds among their various units, which allow them to circumvent currency controls and other regulations and to tap previously inaccessible investment and financing opportunities. 6. By shifting profits from high-tax to low-tax nations, MNCs can reduce their global tax payments. (v) They must agree to discard whatever organization forms that do not work. With decentralization, the corporation’s organizational structure doesn’t have management or administrative centers. James C. Baker defines a multinational corporation as a company- (i) which has direct investment base in several countries; (ii) which generally derives 20 to 50 per cent of its net profit from foreign operations; and (iii) whose management makes policy decisions based on the alternatives available anywhere in the world.